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All about Medical Modifiers
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How to Use Proper and Right Modifiers for Medical Specialty Services

Why do we have to know how to properly use the right modifiers? Well, here
are the simple reasons why we need modifiers:

The physician performed multiple procedures
The procedure performed was bilateral
The E/M service was done on the same day of the procedure
The procedure was increased or decreased
The procedure has both professional and technical component
The procedure was performed by other provider (Anesthesiologist,
Surgeon Physical Therapist, Speech Pathologists etc.)
Procedure on either one side of the body was performed
The E/M service was provided within the postoperative period
The E/M service resulted to Decision of Surgery
Unusual Circumstance
But, do you know what are these numerical modifiers? Let me enumerate them, define and site
some examples for you to understand how is it being

Modifier -25, Significant, separately identifiable evaluation and management
service by the same physician on the same day of the procedure or other

This modifier must be appended with an E/M service. This is the modifier you will need to use
with the evaluation and management service done on the same day with other procedure done
by the same physician. It has to be above and beyond the usual preoperative and postoperative
encounter with the procedure. In fact, by using this modifier, it doesn't have to have a different
diagnosis reported. The most important thing is that, the E/M level should meet its key
components or if it is selected based on time with the patient (counseling and coordination). You
have to be careful in using this modifier. It must meet medical necessity. As you know, there are
procedures that already includes all other care and management.

Let's describe this modifier 25:

A patient came in for her monthly follow up for her chronic back pain. At the same time, patient
was complaining with severe headache. The pain doctor performed bilateral occipital block on
the patient at the time of service. You will append modifier 25 for the E/M code to indicate that both
services were rendered on the same day.

You don't use modifier 25 with E/M encounter that resulted to Decision for Surgery (we have
another modifier for this!)

Modifier -24, Unrelated evaluation and management service by the same
physician during postoperative period.

As the modifier indicates, this is another modifier that you can only append with an E/M counter. It
indicates that the E/M encounter is not related during the global period.

Let's describe this modifier 24:

A pain specialist performed facet nerve destruction for the patient. During the normal,
postoperative global period, the patient came in to the office with severe knee pain due to fall on
ice as evidenced by the patient's subjective information. The pain specialist will then report that
E/M encounter with the patient by appending modifier 24 to indicate that encounter is not related
during the postoperative global period.

This modifier, like modifier 25 has no restriction as with the level of E/M code as long as it meets
medical necessity, all its components or are time-based.

Modifier -57, Decision for Surgery:

An Evaluation and Management service resulted in the initial decision to perform surgery during
the E/M encounter.

Let's describe this modifier 57:

An OB/GYN sees a patient who complains with severe abdominal pain. It
turned out (through ultra sound, radiology and all other diagnostic testing and
documentations), the patient is having an ectopic pregrancy. The OB/GYN
performs the laparoscopic surgery on the same day. The E/M encounter will
then be reported with modifier 57 which resulted to decision for surgery. The
laparoscopic surgery should also be reported as performed on the same day
without a modifier.

Modifier -50, Bilateral Procedure

You will append modifier 50 for procedures that are obviously billable as bilateral (or two sides,
both sides), performed on the same day, the same operative session, on identical anatomical
sites, organs (arms, legs, spine).

A Facet Nerve block is unilateral (can be billed as bilateral). When using a modifier 50, make
sure you only bill for one unit on the claim form since there is only 1 procedure is performed
bilaterally. Though guidelines from other payers may differ. They may require you to list it twice
(line 1 and line 2 on the claim form). You have to be responsible to clarify this with your payors.

You use this modifier with add-on codes too! Do not use this modifier with procedures which are
already described as bilateral procedures.

Modifier -51, Multiple Procedures

This modifier is used when reporting multiple procedures performed by the same physician on
the same day. Do not use this modifier for "add-on" codes
(see appendix D of the CPT Code book). Do not use this modifier for codes with "modifier -51
exempt" symbol (see appendix E of the CPT Code book).

Do not use this modifier with an E/M code. This modifier can only be used by the same physician
on the same day who performed the procedure.

Coding tip: List the highest reimbursable code (after the main procedure code) based on the fee

Modifier -59 Distinct Procedural Service

Description of Modifier -59: Under certain circumstances, the physician may need to indicate that
a procedure or service was distinct or independent from other services performed on the same
day. Modifier 59 is used toidentify
procedures/services that are not normally reported together, but are appropriate under the
circumstances. This may represent a different session or patient encounter, different procedure
or surgery, different site or organ system, separate incision/excision, separate lesion, or
separate injury (or area of injury in
extensive injuries) not ordinarily encountered or performed on the same day by the same
physician. However, when another already established modifier is appropriate, it should be used
rather than modifier 59. Only if no more descriptive modifier is available, and the use of modifier
59 best explains the circumstances, should modifier 59 be used.

Use this modifier only if the other procedure is a separately identifiable procedure code.
Procedure that is distinct and can be described as independent procedure, on separate
anatomical site, lesion, injury site, different organ system, and different session. Do not use this
modifier for E/M code.

Modifier -26 Professional Component

This modifier is used only for the professional component (physician) of a service or a procedure.
Certain procedures are a combination of both professional and technical component. By using
modifier 26, it indicates that procedure being reported as professional component only.

Professional Component versus the Technical Component. By illustration, procedures rendered
at a facility such as outpatient hospital or ASC, these equipments are facility-owned. The facility
will then report the technical component for such service while the physician will report the
professional component for the that procedure.

One very good example, the physician performs Paravertebral Facet Block under Fluoroscopic
guidance using CPT code 77003. The physician will report the fluoro with modifier 26 for his/her
professional component. While the facility will report the the same procedure with modifier -TC
for the technical component.

Modifier -LT or -RT are used to indicate a Left or Right side or anatomical site. So if the pain
specialist performed Left Cervical Facet Block, you will append a modifier -LT to report this

Read on Modifier 80 versus Modifier 82